June 2003



B.S. (engineering), U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y.

B.A. (philosophy, politics, economics), University College, Oxford University.

Ph.D. (economics), Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.


Clifford. S. Heinz Professor for Economics of Global Peace and Security ,
University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697.

Phone: (949) 824-6190
Fax: (949) 824-3401



Teaching Experience:

Public Economics/Public Finance/Public Choice, International Trade, Welfare Economics, Economics of International Security. Graduate/Undergraduate.

Current Research Areas:

(1) Political Economy of Redistribution, Social Investment, and Conflict Resolution.

(2) International Conflict, Economic Development and Strategic Competition.

(3) International Trade and Security

Public Service Consultant Appointments:

International Monetary Fund, Fiscal Affairs Dept.(1996). Political Security and Economic Development

Executive Committee/Board of Directors (1996-99), Western Economic Association International

Advisory Board/Steering Committee, Inst for Global Conflict and Cooperation, U of CA (1993 -1996)

Editorial Board Defense Economics (1989 -Present).

U. S. Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense (1967-1969, 1980-1982): Division of     responsibilities within OSD, Uses of U. S. foreign military/economic assistance; models of Israeli economy, and military capabilities.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1975-1976): Nuclear safety.

U.S. Federal Energy Administration (1975-1976): Energy conservation project analyses.

U.S. Agency for International Development (1974): Economic development in wartime Cambodia.

U.S. Department of Commerce (1967-1969): Economic development and project analyses.

U.S. Department of State, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (1968-1969): Technical arms control studies evaluating information/intelligence.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California (1968-1972)

Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. (1971-1973): Economic-legal analyses of regulation of nuclear power.

Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, Virginia (1962-1995): Strategic studies of nuclear arms race, value of information, utilization of U.S military assistance.

Research Analysis Corporation (formerly Operations Research Office, Johns Hopkins University), McLean, Va. (1961-1964): U.S Army strategy and posture studies

Institute of Naval Studies, Cambridge Mass. (1964): value and uses of strategic information.


Director, Office of Program Plans and Analysis, U.S. Economic Development Administration, December, 1965-July, 1967. Duties included organization, recruitment for staffing, establishment and supervision of Agency's planning and budgeting office; organization of Agency program budgeting system; preparation of annual Program Memorandum; supervision of budget preparation and presentation to the Congress; supervision of Agency program evaluation office and budget staff; testimony before House and Senate Committees; special studies for the Secretary of Commerce.

Team Leader for Strategic Offensive Force Programs, Office of the Asst. Secretary of Defense for Systems Analysis, July, 1964 to December, 1965. Duties included preparing, planning and budget decision papers for the Secretary of Defense, conducting and supervising operations research and budgeting studies of U.S. missile, bomber, and submarine forces, collaboration in preparation of annual Secretary of Defense "Memorandum for the President" and "Posture Statements."


Cadet, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Airborne Qualified 1958

Commissioned U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers: 2nd Lt., 1st Lt, Captain, 1961.

Resigned September 1, 1962;

Army Commendation Medal, awarded 1962.


Combat Engineer Battalion, 1960-61

Strategic Planning Group of the Office Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army, 1961-62

Office Deputy Chief of Staff US Army for Operations (War Plans), 1962. Strategic targeting studies.

Office Deputy Chief of Staff US Army for Logistics, 1962. War planning and mobilization studies.


Fulbright Scholar, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan, April-October 1997 (Redistribution, Social Investment and Forms of Governance) and Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan, January-April 1997 (Public Choice and International Security).

Visiting Emeritus Professor, University of Maryland, September-December 1996

Visiting Scholar, International Monetary Fund, July- November 1996 (Incentive Structures and Resource Allocations within International Institutions).

Academic Visitor, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan, March 1993. (Risk Sharing and Strategic Alliances)

Professor of Economics, (1971- 1992) University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

Fulbright Research Scholar, Institute of South East Asian Studies, National University of Singapore, April-Aug 1989. (Economic and Strategic Security in S.E. Asia)

Visiting Professor of Economics (July 1988- April 1989) UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90024 (Self-protection, Self-insurance and Risks of Trade Disruptions).

Research Analyst, 1983-86 (part-time), Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311. (Economics of international security, arms races, alliance allocation problems, and Japanese trade policy).

Visiting Professor of Economics, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan, April-Sept 1985. Research, lectures, and speaking to university and business groups regarding US-Japan security and economic partnerships.

Academic Visitor, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, January 1984. (intergovernmental economics)

Ford Foundation Visiting Research Professor, University of CA, Berkeley, Spring 1975. (intergovernmental fiscal relations)

Visiting Professor of Economics, University of York, England, 1969-1970.(Studies in Fiscal Federalism and Group Formation)

Academic Visitor, London School of Economics, 1970. (Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations)

Academic Visitor, Johns Hopkins University Bologna Center, Bologna, Italy, summer 1970.

Associate Professor of Economics and Director of Program Planning and Budgeting System Educational Program, University of Maryland, July 1967-1971.

Teaching Fellow, Instructor, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1963-1964. (Economic Theory, International Trade)

Consultant, Project Advisor (various time periods); Harbridge House, Boston. Mass.; Planning Research Corp; Booze Allen Hamilton; National Science Foundation; Georgetown Center for Strategic and International Studies; George Washington University.


Distinguished Cadet, U.S. Military Academy.

Rhodes Scholar. University College, Oxford, England 1958.

Administration Fellow, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1962-1964.

Richard D. Irwin Fellow, Department of Economics, Harvard University, 1963-1964

National Science Foundation Research Grants: 1972-1975, "Economics of Government Behavior."

1980-1983, "Economics of Clubs and Jurisdiction Formation."

Sloan Foundation Grants (with six others in Economics Department, University of Maryland), 1981- 1984, 1984-1986, "Economics of Urban Public Finance."

Japan-U.S. Educational Commission Fulbright Grant (with H. Shibata, University of Osaka),

1984-1987, "International Security and U.S.-Japan Economic Partnership."

Institute for Defense Analyses Research, 1985, "Resource Allocation Behavior Among Nations in Alliances."

NATO Senior Research Fellowship, 1986-1987, "Alliance Resource Allocation Study"

PEW Memorial Trust, 1987-1990, "Integrating Economics and National Security" (with C. M. Kelleher).

Fulbright Research Scholar 1988-89. "International Security in ASEAN."

Fellow: US Agency for International Development "IRIS Project", University of Maryland, 1991 -1992. "Political Economy of Economic Development."

Fulbright Fellowship, Japan-US Education Commission, 1996-97. "Economics of International Security."


Institute for Defense Analyses, 1985-1986, "Pacific Basin Economics and Security."

Kansai Economic Research Center, Osaka, Japan, 1985, "Japanese Economic Security."

Asia Foundation, 1985, "Economics and International Security in the Pacific."

Social Science Research Council, New York, NY, 1985-1986, "Economics of Japanese U.S. Security."


"Redistribution Political Power, and Public Goods." How governance regime influences choice between social investment and wealth redistribution.

"Implicit Mercantilism, Oligopoly, and Trade," with Hiroshi Ohta. How analysis of trade between two systems, competitive and oligopolistic.

"Alliance Protection Against National Emergency" (risk sharing as the basis for alliances).

"Strategic Calculus, Economic Logic, and Missile Defense." How to gain the benefits of defense against attack without giving up the strategic stability of mutual assured destruction.


  1. Philosophy: Refereed Articles
  2. 1."Can I Do What I Think I Ought Not?" MIND, July 1961.

    2. "Decisions, Resolutions, and Moral Conduct, "THE PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, January 1961.

    3. "On Conscience," JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY, May 1963. Reprinted in John Donnelly and Leonard Lyons, Eds., Conscience, pp.145-58. Alba House (New York, 1973).

    4. "The Calculus of Moral Obligation," ETHICS, January 1985.

    5. Review of Knowledge and Policies by R. Unger, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, August 1977.

  3. Economics: Refereed Articles:
  4. 6. "Problems in the Cooperative Allocation of Public Expenditures," Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 1969 (with Harvey Garn).

    7. "Efficiency and Equity in the Optimal Supply of a Public Good," Review of Economics and Statistics, Feb. 1969 (with Henry Aaron).

    8. "Migration, Economic Growth, and Unemployment," Journal of Human Resources, Sept. 1969 (with Curtis Harris).

    9. "The Integration of Equity and Efficiency Criteria in Public Project Selection," Economic Journal, December 1969 (with Harvey Garn).

    10. "Cost Versus Performance Subsidies as Tools of Intergovernment Finance," National Tax Journal, March 1971.

    11."Testing the Analogy Between Local Government and Consumer Behavior," Review of Regional Studies, 1972.

    12. "Public Goods and Income Distribution," Econometrica Nov. 1970 (with H Aaron). Reprinted in K. E. Boulding and M. Pfaff, Eds. Redistribution to the Rich and the Poor , Wadsworth (Belmont, Ca. 1972).

    13. "Private Good Clubs and Public Good Clubs: Economic Models of Group Formation," The Swedish Journal of Economics, March 1972.

    14. "Notes on Grants-in-Aid and Economic Interactions Among Governments," Canadian Journal of Economics May 1973.

    15. "Group Segregation and Optimal Jurisdictions," Journal of Political Economy , January 1974. reprinted in The Economics of Politics: International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, 2001, Dennis C Mueller ed. (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, England)

    16. "Group Size, Group Homogeneity, and the Aggregate Provision of a Pure Public Good Under Cournot Behavior," Public Choice, Summer 1974.

    17. "Pollution Costs, Political Jurisdictions and Economics Markets," (with N. Singer), Environmental Policy and Law, December 1976.

    18. "A Method for Estimating the Effect of a Subsidy on the Receiver's Resource Constraint: With an Application to U.S. Local Governments 1964-1971,"Journal of Public Economics , August 1978, pp.25-44.

    19. "Regulation, Factor Rewards and International Trade," Journal of Public Economics, May 1982, p. 335-54. Reprinted 2001, The International Library of Environmental Economics and Policy: International Trade and the Environment, Judith M. Dean, editor, (Ashgate Press, Aldershot England).

    20. "Factor Taxes, Factor Migration, and Welfare," Canadian Journal of Economics, May 1982, pp. 247-262.

    21. "A Method for Identifying the Public Good Resource Allocation Process Within a Group," (with C. Groth) Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1985, pp. 915-934.

    22. "Private Production, Collective Consumption, and Regional Population Structure," Journal of Regional Science, 4, 1986, pp. 677-705.

    23. "Foreign Assistance, Investment, and Defense," Economic Development and Cultural Change, July 1987, pp. 847-873.

    24. "Economic Theory of Clubs" (encyclopedia entry) in The New Palgrave, Macmillan, 1987.

    25. "Paying to Improve Your Chances: Gambling or Insurance?" (with J. Pratt and R. Zeckhauser), Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, December 1991.

    26. "Group Composition, Collective Consumption, and Collaborative Production", American Economic Review December, 1991.

    27. "Identifying the Free Riders: A Simple Algorithm for Determining Who Will Contribute to a Public Good," (with James Andreoni) Journal of Public Economics, October, 1993.

    28. "The Economics of Autocracy and Majority Rule: The Invisible Hand and the Use of Force" with Mancur Olson Jr., Journal of Economic Literature, March 1996; republished in Silvio Borner and Martin Paldam eds. The Political Dimension of Economic Growth, International Econ. Assn. Conference 1998, St Martin's: London. Reprinted in The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics: The Economics of Conflict, edited by K. Hartley and T. Sandler.2003, Edward Elgar: Northampton, MA.

    29. "Provision for Adversity: Managing Supply Uncertainty in an Era of Globalization," December 2000, Journal of Conflict Resolution. pp. 730-52.

    30. "The Natural Economic Advantage of Dictatorship over Democracy: A Gresham's Law of Governance," International Tax and Public Finance, 2002, pp.451-64. (with Omar Azfar).

    31. "Property Distribution and Configurations of Sovereign States: A Rational Economic Model," Defence and Peace Economics, 2002, pp. 1-19.

    32. "Economics of Strategic Defense and the Global Public Good," Defence and Peace Economics, forthcoming.

    33. "A New Approach to Group Structure, Burden Sharing And the Equilibrium Provision of Public Goods," International Tax and Public Finance, 2003 forthcoming (with Ratna K. Shrestha)

  5. Economics: Chapters in Books, Book Reviews, and Other Papers:
  6. 34. "Policy Analysis for Economic Development," Economic Analysis of Public Expenditure Decisions, A Compendium published by the JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE, U.S. Congress, and May 1969.

    35. "Approaches to the Treatment of Incommensurables in Cost-Benefit Analysis," INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES, July 1973 (with R. Kuenne and D. Dacy).

    36. "Federal-Local Interactions in the Allocation of Resources," in W.E. Oates, ed., Financing the New Federalism (1975, RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE.

    37. "Analysis of Federal Grants Into Price and Income Components" in Fiscal Federalism and Grants-in-Aid, Eds. P. Mieszkowski and W. Oakland, THE URBAN INSTITUTE (Washington, D.C., 1979), pp. 31-50.

    38. "Normative Economics," in Ed. Douglas Greenwald Encyclopedia of Economics (McGraw Hill 1982).

    39. "Environmental Regulation, Factor Mobility, and International Trade," in J.H. Cumberland, J.R. Hibbs, and I. Hoch, Eds., The Economics of Managing Chlorofluorocarbons, RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE, 1982.

    40. "Reviews of Military Expansion Economic Decline" by R.W. De Grasse and of the Structure of the Defense Industry by N. Ball and M. Leitenberg, Journal of Economic Literature, 1984.

    41. "Economic Theory of Clubs" (encyclopedia entry) in The New Palgrave, Macmillan, 1987.

    42. "Coping with Foreign Dependence: The Simple Analytics of Stockpiling vs. Protection", Research Notes and Discussions Paper No. 70, INSTITUTE OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN STUDIES, Singapore, 1990.

    43. Pure Theory of Unemployment Insurance, 1991. Working Paper, Dept of Economics, University of Md.

    44. "Factor Migration, Trade, and Welfare Under Threat of Commercial Disruption," Essays in Honor of Hirofumi Shibata, Osaka Economic Papers, 1991, reprinted in Public and International Economics, Ali M El-Agraa ed., St. Martins Press, (New York).

    45. "Risk Management, Trade and National Economic Security," with Hirofumi Shibata, University of California:Irvine, 1993,

    47. "Joint Product Model of Public Good Supply," to be revised.

    48. "Review of Economics of Defense" by K. Hartley and T. Sandler, Journal of Economic Literature, 1997.

    49. "The Security Factor in the Political Economy of Development," International Monetary Fund Working Paper (Fiscal Affairs Division) March 1998.

    50. "Mancur Lloyd Olson, Jr. 1932-1998: A Personal Recollection," Eastern Journal of Economics, Summer 1998, pp. 253-63.

    51. "International Public Goods: Kindelberger's Challenge," as short comment presented at American Economic Association Meetings, New York City, Jan 1999.

    52. "Conversions from Non-Profit to Profit Making Enterprise in the Health Care Industry," comment delivered at the American Association for the Advancement of Science Meetings, Anaheim CA Jan 1999.

    53. "Failures in Governance," 2002, in Market Augmenting Government, Omar Azfar and Charles Cadwell Eds. Univ. of Michigan Press; Ann Arbor.

    54. "Encyclopedia Entry," Mancur L Olson 1932-98, in Eds. N. Smelser and P. Baltes, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2001 (Pergamon Press, London)

    55. Review of "Democratic Devices and Desires" by Geoffrey Brennan and Alan Hamlin, Journal of Economic Literature, March 2002.

    56. Encyclopedia Entry, "Collective Goods," Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, Oxford University Press: New York

  7. International Studies/Conflict Theory: Refereed Articles and Chapters in Books:
  8. 57. Book: Secrecy and the Arms Race: A Theory of the Accumulation of Strategic Weapons and How Secrecy Affects It," Harvard Economic Studies, Vol. CXXV: Harvard University Press, 1965. Chapter 5 of the above reprinted as "The Arms Race: An Interaction Process," in Bruce M. Russett, ed., Economic Theories of International Politics, Markham New York.

    58. "Structure of Choice Between Deterrence and Defense," in R.N. McKean, ed., Issues In Defense Economics National Bureau of Economic Research, 1967.

    59. "A Quantitative Study of the Strategic Arms Race in the Missile Age," Review of Economics and Statistics, 1977. "Reply" to "Comment" on this Article, November 1981. Republished, 2000, in K. Hartley and T. Sandler eds. The Economics of Defence: The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, England)

    60. "U.S. Foreign Assistance, Israeli Resource Allocation, and the Arms Race in the Middle East," Journal of Conflict Resolution, June 1982, pp. 199-235, republished by International Economic Association, 1987. Republished, 2000, in K. Hartley and T. Sandler eds. The Economics of Defence: The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, England)

    61. "Economics of Defense in the 1990's: The Southern Tier of NATO" (with Kevin Forbes) in Constraints on Strategy, ed., David B.H. Denoon (Pergammon - 1986).

    62. "Firepower, Vulnerability, and the Organization of Military Force in Combat. A Theoretical Analysis," PROCEEDINGS OF SWISS AND U.S. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONFERENCE on Models of International Conflict (Boulder, Colorado, October 1984), 1985.

    63. "Assured Destruction or Assured Survival: The Basic Economics," PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Conference on Defense Economics (Stockholm, October 1985), Macmillan, 1987.

    64. "Economics of Defense" (encyclopedia entry) in The New Palgrave Macmillan 1987.

    65. "Economic Models of Nation Specific vs. Alliance Wide Benefits of Defense Contributions to NATO, " Pew Working Paper Series, Univ. of Md, 1988. Reviewed/published in Defence Economics, 1990, pp. 17-35.

    66. "The Revolution in International Security", Challenge, March 1990.

    67. "The New Strategic Environment and Economic Factors in the Future of Nuclear Defense," in W. Isard and C.H. Anderton, Eds.(1992) Economic of Arms Reduction and the Peace Process, No-Holland, (Amsterdam).

    68. "Defense Economics and International Security," in T. Sandler, and K. Hartley, eds. Handbook in Defense Economics, North-Holland (Amsterdam), 1995.

    69. "Concepts of Defense Economics for the 21st Century," Defense and Peace Economics, 2001.

    70. Review: "Crisis Bargaining and the Arms Race," by Pierre Allan, American Political Science Review, (1984).

    71. "Control of Trade and of International Factor Movement as Instruments to Reduce Economic Vulnerability," Proceedings of Armand Hammer Conference on Economic Cooperation in the Mid-East, Tel Aviv University, 1986.

    72. "Protection of Domestic Industries vs. Defense Against Possible Disruptions: Some Neglected Dimensions" with Hirofumi Shibata PEW WORKING PAPER SERIES, Univ. of Md, 1988.

    73. "Alliance Protection Against National Emergency: Prevention, Preparedness, and Reciprocal Insurance" PEW WORKING PAPER, University of Maryland, 1989.

    74. Review of Arms Races, Arms Control, and Conflict Analysis, by Walter Isard, Journal of Economic Literature, June 1990.

    75. SINGAPORE STRAIGHTS TIMES, October 27, 1991, p 32, "Economics and the Notion of Security."